Scientists are investigating how seeps might influence the impacts of climate change in the parkAlong the coastline of Kaloko-HonokÅhau National Historical Park, groundwater seeps into the ocean and creates brackish, or slightly salty water where unique organisms thrive (NPS 2009). How does groundwater reach the ocean? Well, when it rains, some of the rain is absorbed by the ground and travels through the volcanic rock as groundwater. Sometimes this groundwater collects to form underground reservoirs of freshwater, or , and sometimes the groundwater makes its way to the ocean through pores in the rock.
Overfishing is putting pressure on coral reefspredators and prey in the coral reef foodweb is upset, and the number and types of organisms living on the reef will change.
Overuse can cause damage to coralsMany people come to Kaloko-HonokÅhau National Historical Park to enjoy the cultural and natural sites, and to take the opportunity to explore coral reefs. This is great; however, when large numbers of visitors come to a site and use its resources in a way that damages the resources or reduces the health of the ecosystem, it is called overuse. An example of a problem that can stem from overuse and misuse is stepping on corals while snorkeling, which breaks and damages coral heads. Every coral colony provides for numerous organisms. So, when one coral is damaged, thousands of organisms are made homeless. Scientists at the park have observed that overuse and misuse are damaging coral habitat (NPS 2009).
Urbanization reduces water clarity by adding nutrients and sediments to coral reefssediment reaches the coral reef, it reduces water clarity by blocking the sunlight that the zooxanthellae in the coral tissue use to make food for themselves and for the coral. With less sunlight, corals have less food and can starve.
More ways to explore corals at Kaloko-HonokÅhau National Historical Park